Monday, June 7, 2010

Ladies on the Battlefield...First Things First

Launching Ladies on the Battlefield Week! I've decided to focus mainly on the eighteenth century because...well, I know it the best. And there's too much to cover even with one century! But first...anyone who knows anything knows that women couldn't enlist in the military until well into the twentieth century. World War II, with its Women's Army Corps (WAC), Women's Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), and others paved the way for women's entry into the armed forces.

So what were women doing with the military in the eighteenth century?

In today's military, support roles like cooking, cleaning, repair, maintenance, are all handled by are covered by military personnel or by private contractors. One estimate from World War II indicated that, for every man in combat, there were five or six men behind the lines serving in support roles. In the eighteenth century, many of these roles were filled by women. Soldier's wives often followed the army, serving as official (on the roster) and often unofficial support staff. Women served as nurses in camp hospitals, mended clothing, gathered firewood, cooked (though men were also expected to be able to cook their own rations if needed), and did laundry.

Laundry was actually a booming business in camp--the men were responsible for having their own laundry done, so entreprenurial women would set up shop near camp and render these services--for a fee. Sometimes these women followed the army, or were spouses of men serving in the regiment, but often were not--they had found a good way to support themselves during the turmoil of wartime.

So how did these women get there, and why were they allowed? "Camp followers" have earned the misnomer of being synonymous with prostitutes, and this simply wasn't the case. In fact, women found to be dabbling in prostitution were "drummed out" of camp, as shown below--they were formally marched from camp, humiliated by a chorus of drummers. I enjoy the camp woman, accompanied by two small children, waving a stick at the prostitute in this scene:
Rather, women served a vital role in supporting the troops, and the professional British and German armies of the American Revolution recognized this--they allowed every 1 in 8 men to bring his wife (and, often, children--if she didn't have them before, she was bound to eventually) along with. Some sources even indicate that the German (often dubbed Hessian) armies had a lottery system by which it was determined which wives would be permitted to go. ("Nice going, Hans! Better luck next time, Johann.") And of course, where there are men in unform...The book Redcoats and Rebels included an estimate that the number of dependents (wives and children) returning to England after the American Revolution may have equalled the number of soldiers.

As for the Continental and State troops during the American Revolution, their system for allowing women seems to have been looser. For one, they weren't transporting men across the ocean, so women were more able to come and go, never officially making it "on the ration"--or anyone's roster. Washington seems to have had his issues with women in camp--he complained that they didn't stay with "the baggage" where they were supposed to and (heavens have mercy) the pregnant ones kept trying to ride on the wagons. (Washington may also have been a touch OCD, but that's another discussion.) Their tenures with the army may have been shorter and less regular--women briefly visited and pitched in while their husbands' regiments were camped nearby, then stayed at home rather than following the troops.

Though some edicts of the period indicate that women were supposed to camp separately from the men (with the "baggage") it seems that this was not always adhered to. For one, many prints (like the one below) show women working alongside men in camp. For another, archaelogical finds show the presence of items such as rough children's toys in areas known to be military camps.

Though most women following the army were of the lower class, officer's wives occasionally joined their husbands, as well. Many only stayed with their husbands for the winter "off season" (eighteenth century campaigns took place, generally, during the spring, summer, and fall months only, breaking for the winter), but some stuck it out, seeing their role as boosting morale as well as providing domestic support (darning socks, much?).

And this gets us to how women could end up on the battlefield. Women weren't expected to follow the troops all the way into battle, but sources show that they often operated at the periphery of the field, running supplies such as ammunition and bringing water. During one summertime battle, for instance, women gathered canteens from the men on the lines, ran to a nearby spring to refill them, and returned them to the men. In a circumstance where heatstroke was a real threat, this may have saved lives.

Tomorrow, a bit more about Molly Pitcher--the legend of one woman (or, perhaps, not just one woman) who found herself doing more than just supporting an artillery crew--she found herself a part of it.

Good reading on the subject: Belonging to the Army by Holly Mayer


June Hur said...

Thank you so much for this great post!!!! It would be interesting for someone to write a love story revolving around a soldier and a woman there to support the troops. While researching, I came across this fascinating article about a woman in the 19th century who cross dressed as a man and entered the regiment. Several women, in fact, did that. Very interesting, eh? It would also make for an interesting story.

brownpaperbaggirl said...

Fascinating post! I enjoyed it. I can't wait to hear about Molly Pitcher tomorrow.

Isis' Wardrobe said...

Very interesting!

Another, a little different aspect, of women in war was iNgela Hammar, who very succesfully took over her husband's priveer empire after his death:

(She's also my ancestress, which I find quite cool, I must confess)

Rowenna said...

Thanks Ladies! There are so many fascinating stories. Isis, your ancestress is incredible! And June, stay tuned for cross-dressing ladies...

dolleygurl said...

Wonderful! I know very little about the role of women in the early wars (I know much more about their efforts with WWII). Looking forward to the other posts - thanks!

Isis' Wardrobe said...

I know there are a portrait of her somewhere, but I haven't seen it. I'd love to, and it would be fun to try to make a version the clothes she wears. I'm digging for biographies and hopes! I've read a description of it, and it says that you can see easily what a resourceful and resolute woman she was. :-)